----- Last Article from Tim Hazell -----
Music! Music! Music!
Written by Tim Hazell, Art Director
Down at the Crossroads:
The legend of Faust might best exemplify the concept of a pact with the devil, but such a bargain is also a cultural motif common to many Christian folk tales. The protagonist seeks eternal youth, wealth or status. The price is the wagerer’s soul. In this dramatic vignette, Jesus’ words imply a journey of suffering foretold by proclaimers of the will of God. Judas Escariot is at the crossroads, aware that his betrayal of Jesus will be impossible to prevent:
“Simon,” Peter saith unto him, “Tell us who it is of whom he speaketh.” Jesus therefore answereth, “He it is, for whom I shall dip the sop, and give it him.” So when he had dipped the sop, he taketh and giveth it to Judas, and Judas, who betrayed him, answered and said, “Is it I, Rabbi?” Jesus saith unto him, “Thou hast said.”
Great achievements have been credited to a pact, from the violin virtuosity of Niccolb Paganini to the “crossroad” myth associated with Robert Leroy Johnson (1911- 1938). Legend has it that this master of Delta blues made his own journey to the crossroads to trade his soul for guitar wizardry. Johnson’s premonitions surface in these lyrics.
Hellhound On My Trail
I gotta keep movin’
Blues fallin’ down like hail
And the days keeps on worryin’ me
There’s a hellhound on my trail...
Johnson asks to make his guitar strings bay like the hellhound. “I gotta have that sound, Devil-Man. Where do I sign?” Devil replies, “Your word is good enough, but you better be prepared.” Johnson: “Prepared for what, Devil-man?” Devil: “You know where you are, Robert Johnson? You’re standing in the middle of the crossroads. Your soul will belong to me.”
Confessin’ the blues? Here’s classic Southern comfort!
Chicken and Black-Eyed Pea Soup
1 lb. boneless, skinless chicken thighs, cut into bite-size pieces
2 tbsp. olive oil
1/2 tsp. red chilli flakes
1 large red onion, finely chopped
2 cloves garlic, minced
2 carrots, sliced
2 ribs celery, sliced
2 tsp. sage
2 tsp. thyme
3 cups chicken or vegetable broth
2 cups water
1 tsp. salt (or to taste)
Ground black pepper
2 15 oz. cans black-eyed peas (or substitute beans), drained
1 cup shredded spinach
Heat oil in a large saucepan. Season chicken pieces with a little salt and pepper, brown lightly and set aside. Add chilli flakes, sizzle, then red onion, garlic, carrot and celery. Cook for about 5 minutes, stirring frequently, to deglaze the pan and soften vegetables. Add sage and thyme. Return the chicken pieces. Add chicken/vegetable stock, water, salt and pepper. Bring to the boil, reduce the heat to medium-low and simmer for about 40 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add black-eyed peas and cook for a further 5 minutes. When ready to serve, place 1/4 of the spinach in the bottom of each bowl. Top with soup and sprinkle with parsley. Serve with crusty bread or cornbread muffins.
Ensembles as Canons for Innovation:
Eighteenth-century Europe, and England in particular, witnessed unprecedented prosperity, and a burgeoning, educated middle class. The newly affluent attended opera houses, salons, private homes and pleasure gardens to enjoy diverse entertainments and music. Handel dominated the venues for opera and the oratorio, but William Boyce, Joseph Gibbs, Michael Festing and others were composing chamber music for small ensembles and plush cloisters in the homes of wealthy patrons.
The Classical era and flowering of the Romantics changed the face of Western society. Europe saw revolution, the Franco Prussian War, invention of the telegraph and internal combustion engine. Frederic Chopin enlarged the repertoire for solo piano, expanding the instrument’s range, as well as its impact on modern music. Franz Schubert’s personality and style exemplified the Romantic ideal.
Later Expressionist composers such as Schoenberg and Paul Hindemith took chamber music into unexplored territory and new directions. Schoenberg, evolving from his early tonal works to later use of dissonance, insisted that this new textural development was simply a logical evolution. Modern movements in classical genres, as well as jazz were classified using similar phrases, appearing in critiques by the establishment, that applied to visual arts and architecture. Minimalism, for example, was characterized by the absence of adornments such as modulation, in pursuit of a stripped down functionality. This device is generally understood as a theory of major/minor tonality. Perceptually, tonality can express a migration and return to a hub, or central reference point. In relationships between sciences and post-tonality in music, processes of cognition take the form of principles that delineate our private responses to change, such as intuition.
Definitions of temporality in music may confirm or refute certain absolutes. Variable behavior as a range of modalities within societies has a visceral affinity with the liberal arts. In composition, properties of elasticity and resistence to standardization pertain to tempo, rhythmic and metric structures, allowing for the possibility of anti-narrative techniques, non linear motion, autonomic gesture and deliberate incoherence. These reflect choices we make based on philosophical and rustic considerations, idiosyncratic of content and style in the humanities of native cultures as well.
Urban centers such as Chicago have long been recognized for their affiliations with leaders in contemporary classics and jazz. Beat poetry during the 1950s paved the way for further experiments and interaction between authors and exponents of the avant garde, incorporating sounds of chaos, such as breaking glass and multiple radios turned on and off at random, with ethnic tonalities such as Afro-Caribbean musical traditions. Among recent projects, Raíces y SueZos (Roots and Dreams) involved the talents of master percussionist Rubén Álavarez and poet David Hernández, a founding member of Chicago’s Latino Arts Movement. Described as “the city’s poet laureate,” Hernández uses the sounds, smells and textures of his environment, supplementing thirty years of experience as a writer with his collaboration in music ensembles. Rhythms and tonal clusters affect the shaping and organization of Hernández’s verse, as in “The Butterfly Effect,” where chains of associations freely move from one image to another. The effects, forming links of hallucination, resemble the conflict and resolution of themes navigating without fixed key centers.
If a butterfly flapping its wings in Beijing
could cause a hurricane off the coast of Florida,
so could a deck of cards shuffled at a picnic.
So could the clapping hands of a father
watching his son rounding the bases,
the wind sculpting his baggy pants.
So could a woman reading a book of poems,
a tiny current from a turned page
slipping out the open window, nudging
a passing breeze: an insignificant event
that could snowball months later into a monsoon
at a coastal village halfway around the world.
Palm trees bowing on the shore.
Grass huts disintegrating like blown dandelions.
Trios, quartets and ensembles provide the perfect medium for expressive sonic palettes. This makes them ideal catalysts for new continuities and innovations. Many of today’s composers have grown up and participated in electronic experiences, encounters which are often subverted as part of the learning processes inherent with academic training, surfacing later on as methods to explore the fringes of a banquet of temperament, setting the pace for invention. Compact size and close proximity with the audience bring eye contact and ensemble body language nearer to enthusiasts of the small concert stage. There are moments of diminuendo as silence is shaped, or when a crescendo is imminent, when one feels the sonority of strings, the dynamics of pizzicato and glissandi churning under the floorboards at one’s feet.
An intimate concert of great ensemble playing elicits an intense involvement, chemistry that can only come from the synthesis of performer and spectator. Groups, such as the La Catrina Quartet who concertized at St. Paul’s Church as part of the San Miguel el Grande Pro Musica series recently, are able to transform scores into gestural sweeps of emotive power, laced with subtle shades of humor, pathos and irony. Artists of stature are much more than the products of Universities and Conservatorios. When inspired, they transform the works of avant garde and traditional composers into catalysts for things we can remember of the past, present and future. During la Catrina’s performances of Anton Webern, Thomas Janson and Mozart, sound scapes gathered and pooled, private topographies that captured and suspended harmony, scent and sight. Audience and musicians were set adrift in pursuit of private gardens of darkness and luminescence, minding each other well, almost understanding.
Music before Columbus:
The first instruments in pre-Columbian cultures were probably those obtained from the environment and used in their natural states, without further modification. Seed pods or “cascabeles,” the conch shell trumpet, calcite stones that emitted pleasing sounds when struck and the tortoise shell played with deer antlers may have originated from organic materials that were gathered for utilitarian purposes. As New World religions became more complex, rituals demanded sacred music, dance and human sacrifice.
From these beginnings the sophisticated manufacture of musical instruments evolved. For example, the tortoise shell gave rise to the teponaztli. This is a hollowed out log, richly carved and/or painted, with two to four keys cut into the top that emit musical notes when struck with mallets. Clay flutes come in all shapes and sizes, requiring great skill and knowledge of acoustics in their manufacture. Trumpets are painted with images of gods, sacred events and animals, manufactured from clay, wood, stone and gourds in the Mayan tropical lowlands.
Native music still requires the duplication of sounds produced by natural phenomena such as wind, rain and birdsong. Modern indigenous musicians might include instruments such as the “omichicahuaztli” or musical rasp, globular clay flutes with a myriad of animal and plant forms called ocarinas, and the huehuetl (Nahuatl for grandfather) log drum with a resonating cowhide skin, hollowed out from a single trunk and richly carved.
Mexican recipes are part of the country’s living archaeology. Many have used the same ingredients and preparation techniques since pre-Columbian times. Pumpkin seeds play an important role, toasted in their hulls and eaten as a snack, or hulled but unroasted and unsalted, used in moles and the following “Camarones en Pipián.”
Shrimp in Pumpkin Seed Sauce
1-1/2 lbs. medium-sized shrimp, unshelled
1-1/2 cups cold water
1 tsp. salt, or to taste
Freshly ground black pepper
1 cup hulled, unroasted, unsalted pumpkin seeds
8 sprigs fresh coriander, leaves only
1 chile serrano
1/2 small white onion
1 tbsp. unsalted butter
2/3 cup sour cream
Place the shrimp into a saucepan with water, salt and pepper and bring to the boil. Turn off the heat. Remove the shrimp with a slotted spoon and transfer to a colander. Let cool until safe to handle. They will continue to cook. Reserve the liquid. Shell and de-vein the shrimp, reserving the shells. Place shells in the saucepan with the reserved liquid, cover and simmer 10 minutes longer. Reserve the broth and discard the shells. Gently toast the pumpkin seeds in a heavy, dry saucepan until they start to swell and pop. Do not brown. Add the shrimp broth, coriander, chilies, onion and toasted seeds to a blender jar and blend until smooth. Melt butter in a pan. Add the pumpkin seed sauce and cook over a very low flame for about 10 minutes, stirring and scraping the bottom of the pan. Fold shrimp into the sauce, stir in the sour cream and heat through. Serve with tortillas or rice.
Ancient Greek music has emerged from a handful of ancient documents inscribed with a vocal notation devised around 450 BC, consisting of alphabetic letters and signs placed above the vowels of Greek words. Ancient Greeks composed music and verse meant to be accompanied by the lyre, reed-pipes, and various percussion instruments between 700 and 450 BC. These are known from paintings and archaeological remains, allowing researchers to establish the timbres and range of pitches they produced. Modern scholars have been able to reconstruct and perform these fragments.
As representatives of art, the science of acoustics, structural engineering and relationships with the human body, musical instruments are older than civilization itself. Musicologists speak of corporal origins and, in the words of André Schaeffner, define this as “musiques corporelles” (body music). Hand clapping to accompany singers or instrumental passages is depicted in numerous tomb paintings and reliefs. Egypt in particular employed musicians using carved wooden “clappers” from pre-dynastic times to the Hellenic period.
Archaeological excavations in the ancient Syrian city of Ugarit during the 1950s unearthed tablets containing cuneiform signs in the Hurrian language, one of two including Akkadian spoken during the eras of Sumerian, Amorite transitional and succeeding Babylonian civilizations. These turned out to be the oldest known piece of music ever discovered, a 3,400 year-old cult hymn from about 1,400 BC.
Anne Draffkorn Kilmer, professor of Assyriology at the University of California, deciphered the instructions contained in the text for the first time in 1972. The tablets containing the “notation” have since been interpreted by other scholars of antiquity and are thought to comprise the most ancient annotated song in the world, predating the second earliest Greek example of harmony by at least 1,000 years.
Lyrics are indicated at the top of the tablet and the bottom half contains instructions for playing the music, in the equivalent of a diatonic “major” (“do, re, mi”) scale. The implications of a seven-note diatonic scale, as well as harmony existing over a thousand years before the earliest Greek examples, have challenged musicologist theories about the origins of simultaneously-sounded musical notes. The odds that the number of syllables would match the notation seem to rule out random coincidence.
Very few examples of authentic “recipes” survive before the classical epoch, but meticulous ledgers kept by Egyptian scribes record payments in staples such as bread, onions, garlic and fish. Here is a modern adaption of New Kingdom (1500 BC) marinated chicken.
Chicken drumsticks and/or thighs
1 tbsp. coriander seeds
2 tsp. cumin seeds
1 tsp. cayenne pepper
Coriander, mint and/or spring onion, finely chopped
3 cloves garlic, minced
Salt and black pepper to taste
Drizzle of olive oil
Splash of balsamic vinegar
Lightly toast the coriander and cumin seeds in a small pan. Coarsely grind in a coffee or spice grinder. Combine with the other marinade ingredients in a mixing bowl. Rub into the chicken pieces. Refrigerate and marinate overnight. Grill or roast as desired.
Hip-hop Poetry Redefines the American Dream:
The white girls lift their heads like trees,
The black girls go
Reflected like flamingos in the street.
The white girls sing as shrill as water,
The black girls talk as quiet as clay
- Thomas Merton
The rise to independence, equality and identity of black America would see the development of significant literary trends that became established art forms following the turbulent and dissident fifties and sixties. One fusion of poetry, African rhythm and eloquently legitimized street smarts emerged and achieved international renown as rap and hip-hop.
Characteristics of the movement are differences in tone, diction and rhythm of English as it is spoken in the United States. America’s culturally diverse fabric, sounds of its machines and high technology exerted pressure upon languages brought from Europe. Lyrics gyrate off the page as rapper Biz Markie struts and preens, confidently moving through his urban domain in “Me Versus Me.”
I’m the original B-I-Z
Everywhere I go, I always G
I’m thinkin somethin that you never could see
Doin the beatbox and the R-A-P
That’s why I’m the Inhuman Orchestra, Biz Markie
I’m here just doin my J-O-B
So I can reach the T-O-P
As soon as I get to the T-O-P
Then I will be D-O-N with the E
I rock New Jersey and N.Y.C.
Whether it’s at a club or a block party
To my man Capri, Starchild and Brucie Bee,
Baby J, and DJ Marty
The title of the song in the place to be
Is not this or that, it’s “Me Versus Me”
In a nation founded on the principle that all men are created equal, slavery was an incongruent concept for its displaced, exploited ethnic groups. Early black voices challenged the idea that their race was considered intellectually inferior. Highly structured, elegant and strident lyrics began to appear in the works of 18th century writers and poets. Cults such as the cargo theology developed messianic concepts in which the adherents believed that the white man had a special means of communicating with God. At its roots the cargo movement’s proposal was that by acquiring this gift black society could avail itself of material wealth and escape brutal economic realities. African American poetry and song retained its preoccupation with human bondage throughout the abolitionist movement. Trappist monk, Thomas Merton (1915-1968), evoked images of Harlem’s slums with scathing impact. Activist Eldridge Cleaver would use passages such as the following excerpt to rekindle his fires of indignation during moments of apathy:
“Here in this huge dark, steaming slum, hundreds of thousands of Negroes are herded together like cattle, most of them with nothing to eat and nothing to do. In this cauldron, estimable natural gifts, wisdom, live music, science, poetry are stamped down and left to boil with the dregs of an elementary corrupted nature, and thousands upon thousands of souls are destroyed by vice, misery and degradation, obliterated from the register of the living, dehumanized. What has not been devoured in your dark furnace, Harlem, by marijuana, by gin, by insanity, hysteria, syphilis?”
Seeds for “Last Poets,” pioneers of rap verse, germinated from the prison experiences of Jalal Mansur Nuriddin, who chose jail as an alternative to the Vietnam war. Nuriddin, a devotee of Islam, had learned an early form of rapping, “spiel,” while in prison. With two other inmates, he returned to Harlem upon his release and with his partners, Omar Ben Hassan and Abiodun Oyewole, laid the groundwork for the hip-hop movement. Last Poets, formed in 1969, performed in the streets and their charged lyrics fused with music became true performance art that spawned poetry workshops of the time.
Part of the hip-hop experience involves the process of bringing African mythology to life and redefining Afro-American Christianity “to honor and re-illuminate those ancient things that remain in the ears.” Its juxtaposition of images are literary concoctions that soar and exude power and energy. Henry Dumas’ verse reflects tensions between realism and the surreal using influences from voodoo and rap vernacular. Rap is not a passing fad, but a legitimate vehicle for poets and storytellers to communicate fresh ideas and expose outmoded politics. As with any lasting movement, art and subculture are one and the same and cannot be evaluated separately. Here is an evocative, savory example of Dumas’ experimental work.
brown sound chocolate
like the first time
you saw grapes
and tasted them
and learned the color
brown sound cream milk
like the first time
you saw bees
and tasted gold
and learned the honey
brown sound africa...
Musical instruments represent many things; engineering, science, culture, religion and philosophy. Musicologists speak of “body music.” Musicians gravitate to instruments that are comfortable to hold and play. Choices of timbre and materials are personal; blind players are particularly sensitive to pitch, vibration and balance.
Body music - hand clapping, finger snapping and foot stamping to accompany instrumental passages or vocal arrangements are characteristic of ethnic music and were incorporated into American folk genres by early settlers.
Romans used the word tibia or shin-bone as a model for instruments that were blown. In French, “un nez en trompette,” the flaring opening of a trumpet, defines an upturned nose. Classical theater in ViLt-Nam employs various vocal techniques referring specifically to human anatomy. The nasal voice is “giong mui,” and “gion ham” is the voice of the jaw. American blues references to the guitar speak of a cry or shout.
India’s folk music adds vitality to community life. There are songs for weddings, planting and harvesting. Found materials such as coconut shells, pots and skins are used by artisans in ingenious ways. Commonly known examples include the bansuri or bamboo flute, chimpta or fire tongs, ghatam or clay pot, small bells, wooden clappers, jaw harp and pot drum.
Pythagoras, born about 569 BC in Samos, Ionia, was a pivotal figure in the development of music theory, credited with the invention of a monochord, a single string running between two bridges fixed to a box-shaped resonator. He referred to harmony as “harmony of the spheres.” As we experience sensations while listening to music, our bodies capture and transmit sounds. Reactions to music are often very subjective.
Prolific composer and theorist John Milton Cage Jr. (1912 - 1992) is remembered for his use of the I Ching to create music involving chance, and for his 1952 composition 4'33? Musicians who perform the opus do nothing apart from being present on stage. “Four minutes and 33 seconds of silence,” is really about natural effects heard by the audience from surrounding, ambient space. Cage was an avid macrobiotic cook during his later years. His estate provides us with this robust stir fry!
Walnut Chicken (a la Cage)
2 boneless, skinless chicken breasts, cut into 1/2 inch cubes
2 tbsp light soy sauce
1 tbsp. white wine
1 inch piece ginger, peeled and minced
1 tsp. cornstarch
1 tsp. sugar
2 scallions, sliced diagonally
3 garlic cloves, peeled and sliced
1 cup walnuts or pecans, coarsely chopped
2 tsp. sesame oil
3 tbsp oil
Marinate chicken breast cubes in soy sauce, wine, sugar and ginger overnight. Heat 2 tbsp. oil in a wok or large heavy skillet. Stir fry garlic and nuts. After three minutes transfer them to a bowl. Blend cornstarch with chicken cubes. Heat remaining 1 tbsp. oil. Add chicken and marinade to wok. Stir fry about 10 minutes, until chicken is tender. Toss in the nuts, garlic, scallions and sesame oil. Serve with rice and a green vegetable.
Prior to 1930, literature in the Caribbean was a diversion of the elite. Englishmen of the “Sugar Isles” promoted British imperialism. Anti-colonial consciousness marked the emergence of Caribbean voices finding their first expression in calypso. Calypso originated in West Africa and migrated to the islands, incorporating elements of calinda dance, shango and work songs. Reggae sprang from these roots. Here is an excerpt by Jimmy Cliff:
Between the day you’re born and when you die
They never seem to hear even your cry
So as sure as the sun will shine
I’ll get my share now, what’s mine,
Then the harder they come, the harder they’ll fall
One and all...
Dub poet Derek Walcott won the 1992 Nobel Prize for Literature, a dub landmark. Jamaican wordsmiths, along with the “Mouvement Négritude” in the French Caribbean, believed African emergence could rejuvenate Carib cultural histories.
Renowned Jamaican dub poet Jean Binta Breeze syncopates island life with “get flat”!
Wen storm come
an watch mountain
rub a dub
troo de sea
to Elleston Flats
yuh can see de wukkin riddim
ben de people dem back!
- from “Riddim Raving”
Jamaican cuisine is a potpourri of influences from native Arawaks to British, African, Indian and Chinese colonists. “Jerk seasonings” are hot spice mixtures, wet- or dry-rubbed into meats, chicken, fish, shrimp, sausage, vegetables or tofu. Take a “ride on de riddim” and experiment freely with this marinade.
Jerk Fish and Mango Salsa
4 whole fish, gutted and scaled, or fillets
2 tsp. allspice
2 tsp. black pepper
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. ground cloves
2 tsp. brown sugar
2 tbsp. chopped fresh thyme or 3 tsp. dried.
1/4 cup coriander leaves, chopped
1 Scotch bonnet, habanero or serrano chilli, minced
2 cloves garlic, chopped
2 dried bay leaves, crumbled
One-inch piece ginger, minced
2 spring onion greens, chopped
Minced zest and juice of 1 lime
1 ripe mango, peeled and chopped
2 spring onions, sliced
1/2 cup fresh coriander, chopped
Pinch of salt, pepper and sugar
Juice of 1 lime
Lay whole fish or fillets in a shallow oven dish. If using whole fish such as red snapper, make three slashes in the flesh of each. Set aside. Combine allspice, black pepper and salt in a bowl along with cloves, sugar, thyme, coriander, chilli, garlic, ginger and crumbled bay leaves. Add spring onion greens, lime zest, juice and a drizzle of oil. Mix well. Pour the marinade over the fish. Massage it in (rubber gloves will protect from burn). Leave in the refrigerator to marinate for a minimum of one hour. Prepare the salsa; combine mango in a bowl with the spring onions and coriander, add salt, pepper and sugar to taste, lime juice, a drizzle of oil and toss. Preheat the oven to 375 F. Bake the fish for 15–20 minutes until tender, slightly charred if whole, and aromatic. Serve with mango salsa and lime wedges!
Tango With Picadillo and Mojo Sauce:
Little road that time erased,
that one day saw us walk by together,
I have come for the last time,
I have come to tell you my woe.
- Tango lyrics from “Caminito”
Argentinian Tango lyrics are often profound, the result of collaborations such as the style of the Boedo group of poets. One of the most famous examples of the genre, “Organito de la Tarde” was written in 1923 by Jose Gonzalez Castillo. It is based on the theme of an old man and the languid music of his organito (barrel organ). The wooden leg of a companion accompanies the rhythms of the tango:
At the slow pace of a poor old man
Giving turns to the crank
The little organ at twilight
Fills the suburb with notes
A lame man marches behind
As his wooden leg
Marks the beat of the tango...
Cuban “Habanera,” dubbed “Tango Americano,” combined African and Haitian trends in rhythm and movement, becoming a sensation in countries such as Spain and America. The term is synonymous with “gusto,” finding extroverted release in the island’s cuisines, as well. These recipes for Picadillo (Cuban Hash) and Mojo Sauce evoke a rich ethnic panorama with an Afro-Cuban pulse!
Picadillo a la Habanera (Cuban Hash)
1 lb. ground lean pork or beef
1/4 lb. ground ham
3 tbsp. olive oil
3 cloves garlic, peeled and finely chopped
1 bell pepper seeded, chopped into 1/4" pieces
1 large onion, finely chopped
1 tsp. ground cumin
2 tbsp. tomato sauce
1 tsp. white vinegar
Salt and ground black pepper to taste
1 large potato, peeled and cubed into 1/2" pieces
1/4 cup coarsely chopped olives
4 eggs, fried sunny side up
Cooked white rice
Add olive oil to a large frypan and cook meat (except the ham) thoroughly. Add ham, onion, garlic, and bell pepper. Cook mixture till onions are translucent. Add ground spices, tomato sauce, and vinegar. Mix very well over medium heat until bubbling. In another pan, fry the potato cubes until brown. Stir in olives. Layer on the rice and meat mixture, and top with the eggs. Serve very hot with Mojo sauce.
2 tbsp. extra virgin olive oil
10 large cloves garlic, peeled and very thinly sliced
1/4 cup onion, minced
1/4 cup coriander, finely chopped
1/2 tsp. ground oregano
2 tsp. ground cumin
Salt and ground black pepper to taste
1 cup fresh squeezed orange juice
1 cup fresh squeezed lime juice
1 cup water
Heat 2 tablespoons olive oil in a large saucepan. Add prepared garlic and onion and cook 2 to 3 minutes until pale golden brown, stirring constantly. Stir in the citrus juices, water and all dry ingredients except coriander. Bring sauce mixture to a rolling boil. Remove from heat and let cool to room temperature. Stir the coriander into the cooled sauce mixture. Serve in a bowl alongside main dishes as an accompaniment.